Which study analyzed questionnaires taken by followers as they described their leader behaviors?

Unformatted text preview: Behavioral Approach The Leadership Grid Explored MANAGERIAL BEHAVIORS TASK BEHAVIORS (Goal Accomplishment) 1 RELATIONSHIP BEHAVIORS (Help Followers Feel Comfortable with Themselves) BEHAVIORAL APPROACH Focuses on what leaders do, and how they act, rather than who leaders are. MID 20TH CENTURY BEHAVIORAL APPROACH RESEARCH OHIO STATE STUDIES, 1957, 1963, 1974 UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN STUDIES, 1966 Developed Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) Identified two types of leadership: EMPLOYEE ORIENTATION Composed of 150 questions, constructed from a list of more than strong human relations emphasis interested in workers as human beings 1,800 aspects of value individuality leadership behavior. give special attention to Developed LBDQ-XII Shortened version of LBDQ, created by Stogdill in 1974. Two types of leader behaviors: Initiating Structure (Task) Consideration (Relationship) Analyzed how individuals ACTED when they were leading a group or organization. Leaders: provide structure for followers nurture followers How a leader optimally mixes tasks and relationship behaviors is central of the behavioral approach. personal needs consideration behavior from Ohio State Similar to Studies. PRODUCTION ORIENTATION Emphasis technical and production aspects of a job. Workers are viewed as a means of getting work accomplished. initiating structure behavior from Similar to the Ohio State Studies Employee and Production Orientations were initially viewed at opposite ends of a single continuum leaders who are oriented towards production are less oriented towards employees leaders who are oriented towards employees are less oriented towards production. It was ultimately concluded that effective leaders could be and should be good at both orientations. BLAKE & MOUTON MANAGERIAL GRID, 1964 Best known model of managerial behavior Has been extensively used in organizational training and development. CONCERN FOR PRODCUTION Involves wide range of activities, including attention to policy decisions, new product development, process issues, workload, and sales volume CONCERN FOR PEOPLE Refers to how a leader attends to the people in the organization who are trying to achive eher gaols CONCERN FOR RESULTS, CONCERN FOR PEOPLE 9 MAXIMUM CONCERN MINIMUM CONCERN AUTHORTITY-COMPLIANCE 9,1 Controlling, demanding, hard driving and over-powering COUNTRY-CLUB MANAGEMENT 1,9 Agreeable, eager to help, comforting, and uncontroversial Efficiency in operations results from arranging Thoughtful attention to the needs of the people for conditions of work in such a way that human satisfying relationships leads to a comfortable, elements interfere to a minimum. friendly organization atmosphere and tempo. IMPOVERISHED MANAGEMENT 1,1 Indifferent, noncommittal, resigned, and apathetic MIDDLE-OF-THE ROAD MANAGEMENT 5,5 Expedient, takes middle ground, soft-pedals disagreement, progress over conviction Exertion of minimum effort to get required Adequate organization performance is possible work done as appropriate to sustain through balancing the necessity to get work out while organization membership maintaining more of people at a satisfactory level. TEAM MANAGEMENT 9,9 Stimulates participation, determined, addresses issues, priorities clear, follow-through, open minded, enjoys work PATERNIALISM/ MATERNALISM The leader makes most of key decisions. Reward loyalty and Work accomplishment is from committed people. obedience while Interdependence through a common stake in the organization punishing noncompliance. OPPORTUNISM Uses any combination of the five basic styles for personal advancement. Ruthless, cunning selfmotivated purpose lead to relationships of trust and respect. HOW IT WORKS Provides a framework for assessing leadership in a broad way, as a behavior with a task and relationship dimension Describes the major components of the leaders behavior. Reminds leaders that their actions toward others occur on a task level and a relationship level Offers a means of assessing in a general way the behaviors of leaders. Reminds leaders that their impact on others occurs through the tasks they perform as well as in the relationships they create. STRENGTHS Has broadened the scope of leadership research to include the study of the behaviors of leaders rather than only their personal traits or characteristics. it is a reliable approach because it is supported by a wide range of studies. is valuable because it underscores the importance of the two core dimensions of leadership behavior: task and relationship. has heuristic value in that it provides us with a broad conceptual map that is useful in gaining an understanding of our own leadership behaviors. HOW IT WORKS CRITICISMS Researchers have not been able to associate the behaviors of leaders (task and relationship) with outcomes such as morale, job satisfaction, and productivity. researchers from the behavioral approach have not been able to identify a universal set of leadership behaviors that would consistently result in effective leadership. the behavioral approach implies but fails to support fully the idea that the most effective leadership style is a high–high style APPLICATON Can be applied in ongoing leadership settings. Leaders can assess their own behavior Many leadership training programs give managers questionnaires that assess their leadership behaviors in some way. Applies to nearly everything a leader does. It is used by many training and development companies to teach managers how to improve thier effectiveness and organizational productivity ...
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Which study analyzed questionnaires taken by followers as they described their leader behaviors?

1.Explain the style/behavioral approach and two general kinds of behaviors.  What is the central purpose of the style approach?

Emphasizes the behavior of the leader. Focuses on what leaders do and how they act. The two general kinds of behaviors go as follows:

  • Task Behaviors
  • Relationship Behaviors

“The central purpose of the behavioral approach is to explain how leaders combine these two kinds of behavior to influence followers in their efforts to reach a goal.” – pg 71

2. Summarize the research methods and results of the Ohio State and Michigan studies.  How were the findings similar and different?  What were the overall findings in the collaborative studies in the 1950s and 1960s?  

Ohio State University Study –

Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ). Late 1940’s; based on the findings of Stogdill’s work (1948); importance of focusing more than just the traits of a leader when studying leadership.

Analyzed how leaders act when leading a group or organization and found two general types of leader behaviors: Initiating structure (essentially task behaviors) and Consideration (essentially relationship behaviors). Represents the core of the behavioral approach.

University of Michigan Study –

Relatively same time; how leadership functioned in small groups. Defined two types of leadership behaviors: Employee Orientation (similar to Ohio’s Consideration) and Production Orientation (similar to Ohio’s Initiating). Study placed employee and production orientations as opposite ends of a single continuum, meaning that leaders could either have one or the other.

The collaboration between the two studies produced confusing results that were unclear and inconclusive.

3. Compare and contrast Blake and Mouton’s managerial grid theory to the Ohio State and Michigan studies. 

Blake and Mouton Similar Ohio State / U of Michigan
–               Can have many coexisting traits to develop a behavior

–               Adaptable to reach a goal

–                Both have two main categories that involve some sort of sympathy and some sort of production.

B&M= Concern for People vs. Concern for Production

OS&UM= Employee (Consideration) Orientation vs. Production (Initiating) Orientation.

–               More of a “one or the other” consideration of behavior

–               Adaptable to improve leaders to be more or less of a quality

4. Study the managerial (leadership) grid and explain the derivation of five major styles.  Define each of these styles and explain how a leader with each style might be described. 

Country-Club Management – Thoughtful attention to the needs of the people for satisfying relationship leads to a comfortable, friendly, organization atmosphere and work tempo

Team Management – Work accomplishment is from committed people. Interdependence through a common stake in organization purpose leads to relationships of trust and respect

Middle-of-the-Road Management – Adequate organization performance is possible through balancing the necessity to get work out while maintaining morale of people at a satisfactory level

Impoverished Management – Exertion of minimum effort to get required work done as appropriate to sustain organization membership

Authority-Compliance Management – Efficiency in operations results from arranging conditions of work in such a way that human elements interfere to a minimum degree

5. Explain the paternalism/maternalism style and how it is derived from the managerial grid.

6. Describe as extensively as possible the behaviors associated with this style.

Behaviors associated with this style are both Country-Club and Authority-Compliance.

7. Can you think of any examples of well-known leaders who use this style?

Donald Trump could be seen as a “benevolent dictator”.

8. Is a paternalistic/maternalistic leader aware of his or her style?

I feel that these leaders are aware of their styles.

9. How would a paternalistic/maternalistic leader score on the Style Questionnaire?

They would be in the middle range between task and people oriented.

10. What questions would you include on a questionnaire to assess the behaviors associated with this style?

Do you care more for the accomplishment of the job or the approval of your followers?

11. Explain the opportunistic style and how it is derived from the managerial grid.

  • Describe as extensively as possible the behaviors associated with this style.
  • Can you think of any examples of well-known leaders who use this style?
  • Is an opportunistic leader aware of his or her style?
  • How would an opportunistic leader score on the Style Questionnaire?
  • What questions would you include on a questionnaire to assess the behaviors associated with this style?

12. Complete Case 4.1 (or 4.2. or 4.3) and answer all questions.

Case 4.2 – Eating Lunch Standing Up

  1. Susan is very task-oriented. She seems to establish a Authority-Compliance type of management.
  2. Some employees like her and others do not because of her straight-forward approach to each job and task.
  3. I think she should try to be more considerate but if her style is effective she shouldn’t worry too much about changing.
  4. She could be effective if she changed.

13. Rate yourself on the Style Questionnaire.  Do your scores suggest that you are more task-oriented or people-oriented?  Tell a story that shows how your behavior in one situation illustrated your dominant leadership style. 

The style questionnaire shows that I am far more task-oriented than people-oriented. In ASB I found myself far more concerned with accomplishing a task rather than ensuring everyone involved was feeling alright. It’s not a good quality to have all the time because you need to ensure all the parts are working efficiently to provide a quality product.

14. Is the “Impoverished management” style ever appropriate or desirable for an organization?

The impoverished style of leadership is never appropriate nor desirable for organizations.

15. Who is the best leader you know?  The worst?  To what extent does the style approach account for the differences between these leaders?

The best leader I know is my dad. The worst leader I know is my senior year ASB Advisor. The style approach accounts for the difference between these two leaders because my dad is very patient and humble whereas my ASB ad