Unformatted text preview: Behavioral Approach The Leadership Grid Explored
MANAGERIAL BEHAVIORS TASK BEHAVIORS (Goal Accomplishment) 1 RELATIONSHIP BEHAVIORS (Help Followers Feel Comfortable with Themselves) BEHAVIORAL APPROACH Focuses on what leaders do, and
how they act, rather than who
MID 20TH CENTURY BEHAVIORAL
APPROACH RESEARCH OHIO STATE
1957, 1963, 1974 UNIVERSITY OF
1966 Developed Leadership
Questionnaire (LBDQ) Identified two types of
EMPLOYEE ORIENTATION Composed of 150
from a list of more than strong human relations
interested in workers as
human beings 1,800 aspects of value individuality leadership behavior. give special attention to Developed LBDQ-XII Shortened version of
LBDQ, created by
Stogdill in 1974.
Two types of leader
Analyzed how individuals
ACTED when they were
leading a group or
provide structure for
How a leader optimally
mixes tasks and
relationship behaviors is
central of the behavioral
approach. personal needs consideration
behavior from Ohio State
Studies. PRODUCTION ORIENTATION
Emphasis technical and
production aspects of a job.
Workers are viewed as a
means of getting work
structure behavior from
Similar to the Ohio State Studies Employee and Production
Orientations were initially
viewed at opposite ends of a
leaders who are oriented
towards production are less
oriented towards employees
leaders who are oriented
towards employees are less
oriented towards production.
It was ultimately concluded
that effective leaders could
be and should be good at
both orientations. BLAKE & MOUTON
Best known model of
Has been extensively
used in organizational
range of activities,
to policy decisions,
Refers to how a
leader attends to
the people in the
are trying to
achive eher gaols CONCERN FOR RESULTS, CONCERN FOR PEOPLE
9 MAXIMUM CONCERN
MINIMUM CONCERN AUTHORTITY-COMPLIANCE
9,1 Controlling, demanding, hard driving
and over-powering COUNTRY-CLUB MANAGEMENT
1,9 Agreeable, eager to help, comforting,
and uncontroversial Efficiency in operations results from arranging Thoughtful attention to the needs of the people for conditions of work in such a way that human satisfying relationships leads to a comfortable, elements interfere to a minimum. friendly organization atmosphere and tempo. IMPOVERISHED MANAGEMENT
1,1 Indifferent, noncommittal, resigned,
and apathetic MIDDLE-OF-THE ROAD MANAGEMENT
Expedient, takes middle ground, soft-pedals
disagreement, progress over conviction Exertion of minimum effort to get required Adequate organization performance is possible work done as appropriate to sustain through balancing the necessity to get work out while organization membership maintaining more of people at a satisfactory level. TEAM MANAGEMENT
9,9 Stimulates participation, determined, addresses
issues, priorities clear, follow-through, open
minded, enjoys work PATERNIALISM/
The leader makes most of
Reward loyalty and Work accomplishment is from committed people. obedience while Interdependence through a common stake in the organization punishing noncompliance. OPPORTUNISM
Uses any combination of
the five basic styles for
Ruthless, cunning selfmotivated purpose lead to relationships of trust and respect. HOW IT WORKS
Provides a framework for assessing
leadership in a broad way, as a behavior
with a task and relationship dimension
Describes the major components of the
Reminds leaders that their actions toward
others occur on a task level and a
Offers a means of assessing in a general
way the behaviors of leaders.
Reminds leaders that their impact on others
occurs through the tasks they perform as
well as in the relationships they create. STRENGTHS
Has broadened the scope of leadership
research to include the study of the
behaviors of leaders rather than only their
personal traits or characteristics.
it is a reliable approach because it is
supported by a wide range of studies.
is valuable because it underscores the
importance of the two core dimensions of
leadership behavior: task and relationship.
has heuristic value in that it provides us
with a broad conceptual map that is useful
in gaining an understanding of our own
leadership behaviors. HOW IT WORKS
Researchers have not been able to
associate the behaviors of leaders (task
and relationship) with outcomes such as
morale, job satisfaction, and productivity.
researchers from the behavioral approach
have not been able to identify a universal
set of leadership behaviors that would
consistently result in effective leadership. the behavioral approach implies but fails
to support fully the idea that the most
effective leadership style is a high–high
Can be applied in ongoing leadership
Leaders can assess their own behavior
Many leadership training programs give
managers questionnaires that assess their
leadership behaviors in some way.
Applies to nearly everything a leader does.
It is used by many training and
development companies to teach
managers how to improve thier
effectiveness and organizational
1.Explain the style/behavioral approach and two general kinds of behaviors. What is the central purpose of the style approach?
Emphasizes the behavior of the leader. Focuses on what leaders do and how they act. The two general kinds of behaviors go as follows:
“The central purpose of the behavioral approach is to explain how leaders combine these two kinds of behavior to influence followers in their efforts to reach a goal.” – pg 71
2. Summarize the research methods and results of the Ohio State and Michigan studies. How were the findings similar and different? What were the overall findings in the collaborative studies in the 1950s and 1960s?
Ohio State University Study –
Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ). Late 1940’s; based on the findings of Stogdill’s work (1948); importance of focusing more than just the traits of a leader when studying leadership.
Analyzed how leaders act when leading a group or organization and found two general types of leader behaviors: Initiating structure (essentially task behaviors) and Consideration (essentially relationship behaviors). Represents the core of the behavioral approach.
University of Michigan Study –
Relatively same time; how leadership functioned in small groups. Defined two types of leadership behaviors: Employee Orientation (similar to Ohio’s Consideration) and Production Orientation (similar to Ohio’s Initiating). Study placed employee and production orientations as opposite ends of a single continuum, meaning that leaders could either have one or the other.
The collaboration between the two studies produced confusing results that were unclear and inconclusive.
3. Compare and contrast Blake and Mouton’s managerial grid theory to the Ohio State and Michigan studies.
4. Study the managerial (leadership) grid and explain the derivation of five major styles. Define each of these styles and explain how a leader with each style might be described.
Country-Club Management – Thoughtful attention to the needs of the people for satisfying relationship leads to a comfortable, friendly, organization atmosphere and work tempo
Team Management – Work accomplishment is from committed people. Interdependence through a common stake in organization purpose leads to relationships of trust and respect
Middle-of-the-Road Management – Adequate organization performance is possible through balancing the necessity to get work out while maintaining morale of people at a satisfactory level
Impoverished Management – Exertion of minimum effort to get required work done as appropriate to sustain organization membership
Authority-Compliance Management – Efficiency in operations results from arranging conditions of work in such a way that human elements interfere to a minimum degree
5. Explain the paternalism/maternalism style and how it is derived from the managerial grid.
6. Describe as extensively as possible the behaviors associated with this style.
Behaviors associated with this style are both Country-Club and Authority-Compliance.
7. Can you think of any examples of well-known leaders who use this style?
Donald Trump could be seen as a “benevolent dictator”.
8. Is a paternalistic/maternalistic leader aware of his or her style?
I feel that these leaders are aware of their styles.
9. How would a paternalistic/maternalistic leader score on the Style Questionnaire?
They would be in the middle range between task and people oriented.
10. What questions would you include on a questionnaire to assess the behaviors associated with this style?
Do you care more for the accomplishment of the job or the approval of your followers?
11. Explain the opportunistic style and how it is derived from the managerial grid.
12. Complete Case 4.1 (or 4.2. or 4.3) and answer all questions.
Case 4.2 – Eating Lunch Standing Up
13. Rate yourself on the Style Questionnaire. Do your scores suggest that you are more task-oriented or people-oriented? Tell a story that shows how your behavior in one situation illustrated your dominant leadership style.
The style questionnaire shows that I am far more task-oriented than people-oriented. In ASB I found myself far more concerned with accomplishing a task rather than ensuring everyone involved was feeling alright. It’s not a good quality to have all the time because you need to ensure all the parts are working efficiently to provide a quality product.
14. Is the “Impoverished management” style ever appropriate or desirable for an organization?
The impoverished style of leadership is never appropriate nor desirable for organizations.
15. Who is the best leader you know? The worst? To what extent does the style approach account for the differences between these leaders?
The best leader I know is my dad. The worst leader I know is my senior year ASB Advisor. The style approach accounts for the difference between these two leaders because my dad is very patient and humble whereas my ASB ad