Job analysis is the process of gathering and analyzing information about the content and the human requirements of jobs, as well as, the context in which jobs are performed. This process is used to determine placement of jobs. Under NU Values the decision-making in this area is shared by units and Human Resources. Specific internal approval processes will be determined by the unit's organizational leadership.
Job analysis defines the organization of jobs within a job family. It allows units to identify paths of job progression for employees interested in improving their opportunities for career advancement and increasing compensation.
A relative value is placed on the differing factors described in the Zone Placement Matrix. All new and existing positions will be assigned to a job family and zone using the job analysis process. This process is designed to place positions into families and zones based upon assigned duties, qualifications and competencies as measured by the five criteria found in the Zone Placement Matrix.
Organizational unit leaders are encouraged to consult with Human Resources for guidance at any step in the job analysis process.
Determine the Exempt/Non-Exempt and Managerial/Professional or Office/Service Status
The exempt/nonexempt and Managerial/Professional-Office/Service status of each job will be assigned by Human Resources. Exempt-nonexempt status is based upon an interpretation of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) as it relates to the duties and responsibilities of each job. Managerial/Professional or Office/Service status correlates closely with exempt/nonexempt and impacts some benefits of the job.
Job Analysis is a process to identify and determine in detail the particular job duties and requirements and the relative importance of these duties for a given job. Job Analysis is a process where judgements are made about data collected on a job.
The Job; not the person An important concept of Job Analysis is that the analysis is conducted of the Job, not the person. While Job Analysis data may be collected from incumbents through interviews or questionnaires, the product of the analysis is a description or specifications of the job, not a description of the person.
Purpose of Job AnalysisThe purpose of Job Analysis is to establish and document the 'job relatedness' of employment procedures such as training, selection, compensation, and performance appraisal.
Determining Training NeedsJob Analysis can be used in training/"needs assessment" to identify or develop
CompensationJob Analysis can be used in compensation to identify or determine:
Selection ProceduresJob Analysis can be used in selection procedures to identify or develop:
Performance ReviewJob Analysis can be used in performance review to identify or develop:
Methods of Job AnalysisSeveral methods exist that may be used individually or in combination. These include:
What Aspects of a Job Are Analyzed?
Job Analysis should collect information on the following areas:
Job analysis is the process of studying and collecting information relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job.
The information thus collected is analyzed, and the facts about the nature of job working conditions and qualities in an employee can be easily known. Job analysis defines the jobs within the organization and the behaviors necessary to perform these jobs.
Job Analysis is a systematic exploration, study, and recording of a specific job’s responsibilities, duties, skills, accountabilities, work environment, and ability requirements.
It also involves determining the relative importance of the duties, responsibilities, and physical and emotional skills for a given job.
Definition of Job Analysis
Mathis and Jackson (1999) view job analysis as a systematic way to gather and analyze information about the content and human requirements of jobs and the context in which jobs are performed.
Dessier (2005) defines job analysis as the procedure through which job analyst determines the duties of different positions of an’ organization and the characteristics of the people to hire them.
Dale Yoder (1983) defines job analysis as “a process in which jobs are studied to determine what tasks and responsibilities they include their relationships to other jobs, the conditions under which work is performed, and the personnel capabilities required for satisfactory performance.”
In the opinion of Strauss and Sayles (1977), job analysis consists of two parts, a statement of work to be done (Job description) and the skills and knowledge which must be possessed by anyone filling the job (Job Specification)”.
According to Gary Dessler, “Job analysis is the procedure for determining the duties and skills requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it.”
According to Edwin B. Flippo, “Job Analysis is the process of studying and collecting information relating to the operation and responsibilities of a specific job.”
“Job analysis is a systematic way to gather and analyze information about the content and the human requirements of jobs and the context in which jobs are performed.” – Decenzo and Robbins.
Job analysis involves collecting data about the performance of the job in an organization.
However, this definition is probably too simplistic when all of the different types of information that must be collected are considered.
For example, the data collected should clearly describe exactly what is required to perform a specific job.
This should include the:
So the types of information to be collected by a job analysis are shown below:
So. job analysis is the process of determining and reporting pertinent information relating to the nature of a specific job. It is the determination of the tasks that comprise the job and the skills, knowledge, abilities, and responsibilities required of the holder for successful job performance.
The end product of a job analysis is a written description of the actual requirements of the job.
Features of Job Analysis
From the definitions in the preceding section, we can list out the features of job analysis as follows:
Uses or Objectives of Job Analysis
A sound human resource management practice dictates that a thorough job analysis should be done, as it may provide a deeper understanding of the behavioral requirements of jobs.
This, in turn, creates a solid basis on which to make job-related employment decisions. Job analysis information is used for many purposes:
Organizational structure and design
By clarifying job requirements and interrelationships among jobs, responsibilities at all levels can be specified, promoting efficiency and minimizing overlap or duplication.
Human resource planning
Job analysis is the foundation of forecasting the needs for human resources and plans for such activities as training, transfer, or promotion.
Job analysis information is incorporated into a human resource information system.
Job analysis provides information related to the job, and this data can be used to make the process or job simple.
Work simplification means dividing the job into small parts, i.e., different operations in a product line or process, improving production or job performance.
Setting up of standards.
Standard means minimum acceptable qualities or results or performance or rewards regarding a particular job.
Job analysis provides information about the job, and the standard of each can be established using this information.
Support for personnel activities
Job analysis supports various personnel activities like recruitment, selection, placement, training and development, wage administration, performance appraisal, etc.
A job description is a job profile that describes the contents, environment, and condition of jobs. It is prepared based on data collected through job analysis. It provides information relating to the activities and duties to be performed in a job.
Job description differentiates one job from another by introducing unique characteristics of each job.
A job specification is another notable objective of job analysis. It includes information relating to the requirements of skills and abilities to perform a specific task.
It states the minimum acceptable qualifications that an incumbent must possess to perform the assigned duty successfully. The job specification statement identifies the knowledge, skills, abilities needed to perform that task effectively.
Job classification system
Selection, training, and pay systems often key to job classification systems.
Without job analysis information, it is impossible to determine the relationships among jobs in an organization reliably.
Job evaluation and compensation
Job analysis also provides the required information that is necessary for evaluating the worthiness of jobs.
After the preparation of job description and job specification statements, it assists in the evaluation of actual performance against the predetermined standard. Then the deviation (if any) is found out that has taken place during action.
Moreover, it helps establish the value of different jobs in a hierarchical order, allowing comparing jobs one from another.
These, in turn, are valuable in helping managers identify the kinds of employees they should recruit, select, and develop and provide guidance for decisions about training and career development, performance appraisal, and compensation administration.
Strategic Choice of Job Analysis
The following strategic guidelines should be examined when deciding whether to conduct a job analysis;
Purposes of Job Analysis
The data collected from the job analysis can be used for a variety of purposes.
Job descriptions describe the duties, responsibilities, working conditions, and activities of a particular job. Job descriptions vary in terms of the level of detail provided.
However, several components are present in virtually every job description—for example, the job title, type of summary, and worker requirements.
One valuable source for locating standardized job descriptions is the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT), published by the US Department of labor, providing more than 12,000 occupations. Managers can adapt the standardized job descriptions from the DOT to the specific jobs within their firm.
Job specifications detail the knowledge, skills, and abilities relevant to a job, including the education, experience, specialized training, personal traits, and manual dexterity required. The job specification is important for several reasons.
First, certain jobs have the qualifications required by law.
For example, airline pilots, attorneys, and medical doctors all need to be licensed. Another type of job specification is based on professional tradition.
For example, university professors must usually hold a Ph.D. or equivalent degree if they will be in a tenure track position.
Finally, job specifications might involve establishing certain standards or criteria that are deemed necessary for successful performance.
The information gathered during a job analysis can be used as input for the organization’s job evaluation system. The job evaluation determines the worth of a particular job to the organization.
This information is primarily used to determine the pay for the job. Thus, employees should be paid more for working on more difficult jobs.
Components of Job Analysis
A job can be broken into several components and arranged into a hierarchy of work activities. This hierarchy is depicted in the following figure;
The smallest practical unit into which any work activity can be subdivided.
An identifiable unit of work activity produced through the application of a Composite of methods, procedures, and techniques.
An individual performs several distinct tasks to complete a work activity for which he or she is responsible.
The combination of all the duties required of one person performed a job.
A group of positions that are the same enough or their job elements tasks and others to be covered by the same job analysis.
Jobs combined across organizations based upon the skills, exhaustion, and responsibilities required by the jobs.
A category in which similar cocoons are grouped.
Steps in Job Analysis Process
There are six steps in doing a job analysis process. Let’s look at each of them. The steps are shown in the following figure:
Step 1: Decide how we will use the information.
Decide how we will use the information since this will determine the data we collect and how we collect them. Some data collection techniques – like interviewing the employee and asking what the job entails – are good for writing job descriptions and selecting an employee for the job.
Other techniques, like the position analysis questionnaire, do not provide qualitative information for a job description.
Instead, they provide numerical ratings for each job: these can be used to compare jobs for compensation purposes.
Step 2: Review relevant background information
Review relevant background information, such as organization charts, process charts, and job descriptions. Organization charts show the organization-wide division of work, with titles of each position and interconnecting lines that show that reports to and communicates with whom.
A process chart provides a more detailed picture of the workflow. A process chart shows the flow of inputs to and outputs from the job we analyze in its simplest form.
Finally, the existing job description usually provides a starting point for building the revised job description.
Step 3: Select representative positions
Select representative positions. There may be too many similar jobs to analyze them all. For example, it is usually unnecessary to analyze the jobs of 200 assembly workers when a sample of 10 jobs will do.
Step 4: Analyze the job
Analyze the job by collecting data on job activities, required employee behaviors, working conditions, and human traits and abilities needed to perform the job. For this step, use one or more of the job analysis methods.
Step 5: Verify the job analysis information.
Verify the job analysis information with the worker performing the job and with his immediate supervisor. This will help confirm that the information is factually correct and complete.
This review can also help gain the employee’s acceptance of the job analysis data and conclusions by giving that person a chance to review and modify our description of the job activities.
Step 6: Develop a job description and job specification
Develop a job description and job specification. The job description is a written statement that describes the activities and responsibilities of the job and its important features, such as working conditions and safety hazards.
Job specification summarizes the personal qualities, traits, skills, and background required for getting the job done. It may be in a separate document or the same document as the job description.
Job Analysis Methods
An organization uses different methods to collect information and conduct job analysis.
These methods are;
In this method, the observer observes a worker or a group of workers doing a job. He makes a list of all the duties performed by the worker and the qualities required to perform those duties.
It is a direct method. Direct exposure to jobs can provide a richer and deeper understanding of job requirements than works’ descriptions of what they do.
If the work in question is primarily mental, observations alone may reveal little useful information.
With this approach, an analyst does the job understudy to get firsthand exposure to what it demands.
With this method, there is exposure to actual job tasks and the physical, environmental, and social demands of the jobs. It is suitable for jobs that can be learned in a relatively short period.
Its main limitation is that when the employee’s work is being observed, the employee becomes conscious. This method is inappropriate for jobs that require extensive training or are hazardous to perform.
Under this method, a manager can determine the content and pace of a typical workday through a statistical sampling of certain actions rather than through continuous observation and timing of all actions.
Here a manager or job analyst visit each job site and talks with employees performing each job. A standardized interview form is used most often to record the information.
Frequently, both the employee and the employee’s supervisor must be interviewed to obtain a complete understanding of the job. In some cases, a group of experts conducts the interview. They ask questions about the job, skill levels, and difficulty levels.
They ask questions and collect information, and based on this information, and job analysis is prepared.
This method can provide information about standard and non-standard activities and physical and mental work.
In short, the worker can provide the analyst with information that might not be available from any other source. Its main limitation is that workers may be suspicious of interviewers and their motives.; interviewers may ask ambiguous questions. Thus, the distortion of information is a real possibility.
A survey instrument is developed and given to employees and managers to complete.
The main advantage of this method is that information on many jobs can be collected inexpensively in a relatively short time. This method is usually cheaper and quicker to administer than other methods.
Questionnaires can be completed off the job, thus avoiding lost productive time. Its main limitation is that it is time-consuming and expensive to develop. The rapport between analyst and respondent is impossible unless the analyst is present to explain and clarify misunderstandings.
Such an impersonal approach may have adverse effects on respondent cooperation and motivation.
Critical incident method
In this method, the employee is asked to write one or more critical incident that has taken place on the job. The incident will explain the problem, how it is handled, qualities required and difficulty levels, etc. The critical incident method gives an idea about the job and its importance.
A critical means important, and incident means anything which takes place on the job. This method focuses directly on what people do in their jobs, and thus, it provides insight into job dynamics.
But this method takes much time to gather, abstract, and categorize the incidents. It may be difficult to develop a profile of average job behavior as this method describes particularly effective or ineffective behavior.
Under this method, companies can ask employees to maintain log records or daily diaries, and job analysis can be done based on information collected from the record.
A log record is a book in which employee records /writes all the activities performed by him on the job.
The records are extensive and exhausted in nature and provide a fair idea about the duties and responsibilities in any job. In this method, the worker does the work himself, and the idea of the skill required, the difficulty level of the job, and the efforts required can be known easily.
Job Analysis Tools
Job Analysis supports all other management activities, including recruitment and selection, training and development need analysis, performance analysis and appraisal, job evaluation, job rotation, job enrichment and enlargement, the right job-individual, creation, and regulation of entry and exit of talent in an organization.
There are various tools and techniques, such as the O-Net model. PAQ model. FJA model.
F-JAS model and competency model that helps HR managers to develop genuine job description and job specification data. Though not very new, only a few very high-profile organizations use these specialized tools and techniques.
Not very common in use, but once understood, these systematic approaches prove extremely useful for measuring the worth of any job in an organization.
The beauty of this model is that it helps managers or job analysts in listing job-related data for a huge number of jobs simultaneously. It helps collect and record basic and initial data, including educational requirements, physical requirements, and mental and emotional requirements to some extent.
It also links the compensation and benefits, perks, and advantages to a prospective candidate for a specific job.
FJA stands for Functional Job Analysis and helps in collecting and recording job-related data to a deeper extent. It is used to develop task-related statements.
Developed by Sidney Fine and his colleagues, the technique helps determine the complexity of duties and responsibilities involved in a specific job.
This work-oriented technique works based on the relatedness of job data, where the complexity of work is determined on a scale of various scores given to a particular job. The lower scores represent greater difficulty.
PAQ represents the Position Analysis Questionnaire. This well-known and commonly used technique analyzes a job by getting the questionnaires filled by job incumbents and their superiors.
Designed by a trained and experienced job analyst, the process involves interviewing the subject matter experts and employees and evaluating the questionnaires on those bases.
Representing Fleishman Job Analysis System is a basic and generic approach to discover common elements in different jobs, including;
This model talks about employees’ competencies in terms of knowledge, skills, abilities, behaviors, expertise, and performance.
It also helps understand what a prospective candidate requires at the time of entry in an organization at a particular designation in a given work environment and schedule.
The model also includes basic elements such as qualifications, experience, education, training, certifications, licenses, legal requirements, and a candidate’s willingness.
This technique defines the personality dynamics and suggests an ideal job model.
However, it does not discuss the individual competencies such as intellect, experience, or physical and emotional characteristics of an individual required to perform a specific job.
Different tools can be used in different situations. The selection of an ideal job analysis tool depends upon job analysis needs and objectives and the amount of time and resources.
Key Factors in Job Analysis
There are a few key factors in job analysis. These are as follows:
Employees receive more satisfaction from doing a ‘whole’ piece of work. This is likely to happen when the job has a distinct beginning and end, visible to the employee and others.
Employees must see the work results they have produced either independently or as a part of a team.
Employees, who perform repetitive tasks, which offer no challenge, may lose interest and become bored and dissatisfied. Greater variety can improve interest, challenge, and commitment to the task. Variety means more than simply adding an extra but similar task.
For example, processing different forms would not make the work more meaningful as there would be no extra challenge.
Too much variety can also be frustrating and a source of conflict and dissatisfaction. The optimum amount of variety will differ from person to person and could depend on the level of the position.
Employees need to feel responsible for a significant part of the work they perform, either individually or as part of a team.
Work should be identified, enabling employees to see that they are personally responsible for the successes and failures of their actions.
This goes hand in hand with responsibility. Employees should have some areas of decision-making within the framework of their job.
Autonomy means giving more scope to employees to regulate and control their work.
A job should provide a safe and healthy working environment that is free from discrimination and harassment. It is also important to consider the types of work aids and equipment required to perform the role.
Interaction with others
Employees need to understand their reporting relationships.
For example, employees must know to whom they report. It is important to identify the level of interaction that is required with key internal and external customers.
Recognition and support
Employees need jobs that contribute to self-respect, particularly through acceptance and recognition by fellow workers and supervisors.
Jobs should permit relationships between individuals and encourage teamwork; otherwise, the employee can feel isolated, resulting in negative feelings about their work and work environment.
Outcomes and performance measures
Employees need to know what their particular targets are and how they relate to the organization’s overall operation. This will involve identifying the outcomes required of the position.
The standard of performance also needs to be identified, along with performance measures. This feedback will provide employees with an equitable capacity for ongoing learning and advancement.
Guidelines for Job Analysis
Before actually analyzing the job, using one or more of the tools we turn to in the following section, keep four practical guidelines in mind.
Importance of Job Analysis
Job analysis is a process. The importance of job analysis are;
Planning and organizing of program
The first step is to plan and organize the job analysis program. Planning is done before gathering data from the employees. It is important to identify the objectives of the job analysis.
Top management support is needed to make job analysis a success. A person is designated as in charge of the program, and required authority and responsibility are assigned. The schedule of the program and budget estimation is prepared.
Obtaining current information
Current job design information is collected, and the analyst does the study of job description, job specification, processes used, manuals, and organization flow charts.
Conducting needs research
The analyst determines which manager, the department requires the job analysis. Research is conducted to determine the purpose of the job analysis and the method used to gather relevant information.
With the help of various managers of the related department, an HR manager will identify and prioritize the jobs to be analyzed.
Collecting job data
The next step is collecting the data related to the job selected for the analysis as they are being performed in the organization.
Preparing job description
Using job information obtained from job analysis, a job description is being prepared. It states the full information about the job, including the working conditions, nature of the job, processes, machines, and materials used.
Developing job specification
Job specifications are developed using the information given in the job description.
A job specification is a statement regarding human qualities that are required to perform a particular job. Such information is used to select the person matching the requirements of the job.
Maintaining and updating the job description and job specification.
Once a job description and job specification have been completed and reviewed, a system must be developed to keep them current.
Job requirements and employee requirements may be changed over time, and accordingly, job descriptions and specifications need to be adapted.
Employee turnover is a severe problem in most industries.
Turnover is harmful because it causes serious inconveniences, high costs, wastage of trained workforce, reduces morale and motivation. It occurs mainly due to frustration for the following reasons:
This mismatch has arisen because the actual work has not been properly defined, designed, and disclosed.
This leads to the concept of job analysis. F.W. Taylor, the father of Scientific Management, also emphasized conducting and studying each part of the job scientifically to develop one best way of doing a task.
Let us now define a job.
Organizations consist of positions that have to be staffed by the right person.
A job is defined as a collection of duties and responsibilities given to an individual employee. Jobs are important to individuals.
They help determine living standards, places of residence, status, and even one’s sense of self-worth. Jobs are important because they are the vehicles through which works are accomplished.
Job analysis is an essential prerequisite for the effective management of the human resources of an organization. It is the process of gathering relevant information about a job. It specifies the tasks involved in a job and the factors that influence the performance of that job.
As a process, it is capable of producing results with great practical relevance for human resource management.
Job analysis has applications in almost all the HR activities of an organization.
It acts as the basis for decisions involving human resource planning, recruitment and selection, training and development, compensation fixation, job evaluation, performance evaluation, career management, and the health and safety of employees.